By Michael C. Coleman
For hundreds of years American Indians and the Irish skilled attacks through robust, increasing states, in addition to big land loss and inhabitants cave in. within the early 19th century the U.S. govt, performing in the course of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), all started a scientific crusade to assimilate Indians. at first depending on Christian missionary societies, the BIA later equipped and ran its personal day faculties and boarding faculties for Indian kids. even as, the British govt verified a national easy institution method in eire, overseen by means of the commissioners of nationwide schooling, to assimilate the Irish. via the Twenties, as those campaigns of cultural transformation have been finishing, approximately comparable proportions of Indian and Irish kids attended state-regulated schools. In the 1st complete comparability of yankee and British govt makes an attempt to assimilate “problem peoples” via mass trouble-free schooling, Michael C. Coleman provides a fancy and interesting portrait of imperialism at paintings within the countries. Drawing on autobiographies, govt documents, straightforward college curricula, and different historic files, in addition to photos and maps, Coleman conveys a wealthy own feel of what it was once prefer to were a student at a college the place one’s language used to be no longer spoken and one’s neighborhood tradition virtually erased. In absolute phrases the campaigns failed, but the universities deeply replaced Indian and Irish peoples in methods unpredictable either to them and to their educators. Meticulously researched and fascinating, American Indians, the Irish, and govt education units the time table for a brand new period of comparative analyses in worldwide indigenous reports. (20080722)
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Extra info for American Indians, the Irish, and Government Schooling: A Comparative Study (Indigenous Education)
S. government ofﬁcials, and “friends of the Indian” fused versions of Christianity and an idealized Euro-American lifestyle into an all-embracing, messianic vision. This “Christian civilization” was locked in a deadly struggle against “heathenism,” “savagery,” and all such supposedly deﬁcient cultural states. Colonial missionaries and later educators generally combined an egalitarian and nonracist conviction in the capacity of Indian peoples, with a near-absolute ethnocentric conviction that Indians must leave all their old ways behind and accept all the new ways.
67 V By the 1820s, then, American Indian and Irish peoples had different yet partly similar experiences of nonschool education and of schooling. In terms of nonschool education—the lot of the majority in both areas—there were perhaps surprising similarities. Responsibility fell mostly on kin and the local community. Further, and also related to the general lack of schooling, most education was oral in nature. Few Indian languages had by then been put into writing. 68 We must concede, nevertheless, that compared to American Indian children, Catholic and Protestant Irish children in 1800 did have much more experience of formal elementary schooling in the Western sense of the term.
The teacher appeared to be “a great sufferer,” and Atthil brought him to his dispensary and gave him temporary medical relief for his ailments. Then the teacher told me what indeed I knew—the condition of the men of his class; that he rarely received any money; that he had spent his life wandering from place to place, teaching when he had the chance the children of the poor the rudiments of learning. This he did in barns, sheds, or by the roadside, receiving in return such scanty food as they had to give, seldom sleeping in any dwelling-house, but in some dilapidated barn or uncleanly shed.