By Ronald K. Hambleton, Jac. N. Zaal
Over the final two decades there were a lot of technical advances and adjustments within the box of academic and mental trying out. based on Anne Anastasi, the last decade of the 1980's has been a interval of surprising advances in ,psychological checking out. Technological growth, theoretical sophistication, and lengthening professional fessional accountability are all glaring within the fast-moving occasions during this box (A. Anastasi, mental trying out, 6th variation. ny: Macmillan, 1988). at the psychometric entrance, advances in issues akin to merchandise reaction thought, criterion-referenced size, generalizability theory,· analy sis of covariance constructions, and validity generalization are reshaping the ways in which skill and fulfillment checks are built and evaluated, and that try out ratings are interpreted. yet \Jsychometric advances, as massive and critical as they've been, are just a fragment of the key adjustments within the box of checking out. at the present time, for instance, the pc is appreciably chang ing the ways that checks are built, administered, and scored. pcs are getting used to manage checks "adaptively." that's, the series of questions an examinee is run will depend on his or her functionality on previous administered goods within the try out. exams are "adapted" to the facility degrees of the examinees who're being assessed. One result's shorter exams with very little loss in size precision. desktops also are getting used to shop or financial institution attempt goods. Later, goods of curiosity will be chosen, and the pc is used to print copies of the test.
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Review of Educational Research 55(1):23-46. Haladyna, T. M. (1989a). A taxonomy of multiple-choice itemwriting rules. Applied Measurement in Education 2(1):37-50. - - - - . (1989b). Validity of a taxonomy of multiple-choice item-writing rules. Applied Measurement in Education 2(1):51-78. Haladyna, T. , & Shindoll, R. R (1989). Item shells: A method for writing effective multiple-choice test items. Evaluation & the Health Professions 12(1): 97-106. Hambleton, R. K. ). (1980). Contributions to criterion-referenced testing technology.
Construct validation studies begin with a definite statement of the proposed use of the test scores. A clearly stated use will provide direction for the kind of evidence that is worth collecting. A few investigations that could be undertaken to estimate the construct validity of a set of criterion-referenced test scores are described next. Factor Analysis. Factor analysis is commonly employed for the dimensional analysis of items in a norm-referenced test, or of scores derived from different norm-referenced tests.
Journal of Educational Measurement 17:323-349. - - - - . ). (1984a). A guide to criterion-referenced test construction. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press . (1984b). Conducting the item analysis. In R. A. ), A guide to criterion-referenced test construction. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 97-143. - - - - . (1986). A consumer's guide to setting performance standards on criterion-referenced tests. Review of Educational Research 56(1):137-172. Block, J. H. (1972).