By Elizabeth Thorndike (auth.), Paulette Mandelbaum, Carole Beal (eds.)
This quantity, complaints of the convention ACID RAIN: monetary evaluation, is intended to offer the parts of contract which economists have verified and the uncertainties which they've got came across of their makes an attempt to exploit the technique of economics to raised comprehend the character of the acid rain factor. medical articles approximately acid rain at first seemed in 1972. the general public grew to become its cognizance to the problem within the mid-1970s. In April 1979, the 1st acid rain invoice used to be brought within the Senate, authored by means of New York's Senator Daniel P. Moynihan. The invoice sought to set up a federal examine application devoted to filling the gaps in realizing of the phenomena of long-range delivery of air toxins and their environmental, overall healthiness and monetary affects. 'The invoice used to be handed into legislation in 1980. because then, tens of accounts were proposed to manage emissions of S02 and NO , x considered the precursors of acid rain. And but, by contrast with the development set via nearly all of environmental matters, the place laws in a short time at the heels of public nervousness and involvement, via July 1985 no longer a unmarried federal acid rain keep watch over invoice were passed.
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O~YMYU~~~~~----~~----~------~-----r-o 2 4 6 8 10 12 S02 Reductions From Base Case (1 ()6 Tons) Figure 10. 1990: Cost-Effective Reductions Achievable Efforts to reduce emissions too much too soon would result in very high costs and much disruption, because capacity constraints on low sulfur coal and scrubber construction would be encountered. Waxman-Sikorski requirements probably can't be met. The required scrubbers could not be built at assumed costs, if at all, in the time available. RESPONSE TO HOFF STAUFFER Larry B.
ZJ _ Other N. App. (::::::::::) Midwest 334 334 Ohio 335 335 300 245 200 100 11 1980 1995 1995 1995 Base Case 1995 1995 6MM 8MM 10MM 12MM Ton To n Ton Ton Figure 6a. c t:. ,-g :-_ _~JIl~ 10 - 6MM Ton , 8MM Ton I I 10MM Ton Figure 6b. Fuel Switching and Job Losses 12 MM Ton Costs of Control and Coal Market Effects 43 WAXMAN-SIKORSKI The Waxman-Sikorski bill represents the scrubber approach. 9) Figure 7a. 2) Figure 7b. 5 Million Tons Stauffer 44 COSTS The costs of the Waxman-Sikorski bill exceed those of the "cost-effective equivalent" by about $1 billion per year.
Several causes may be acting together and many different hypotheses have been proposed in West Germany to explain the observed forest changes. Most of the affected forests in West Germany are closer to emissions sources than such areas in the United States and have roughly double the ambient levels of polluting gases while receiving precipitation of similar acidity. Under the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, scientists are beginning to look more closely at forest growth history in the United States.