By Darwin C. G.
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What do atoms need to do together with your lifestyles? on your Atomic Self, scientist Curt Stager unearths how they attach you to a couple of the main notable issues within the universe.
You will stick to your oxygen atoms via fireplace and water and from forests for your fingernails. Hydrogen atoms will wriggle into your hair and betray the place you reside and what you've been ingesting. The carbon on your breath becomes tree trunks, and the sodium on your tears will hyperlink you to long-dead oceans. The nitrogen on your muscle tissue may also help to show the sky blue, the phosphorus on your bones can help to show the coastal waters of North Carolina eco-friendly, the calcium on your enamel will weigh down your foodstuff among atoms that have been mined by way of mushrooms, and the iron on your blood will kill microbes because it as soon as killed a star.
You also will realize that a lot of what dying needs to unavoidably do in your physique is already taking place between lots of your atoms at this very second and that, still, you and everybody else you recognize will consistently exist someplace within the cloth of the universe.
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Extra resources for A Quantum Theory of Optical Dispersion
This statement may be interpreted as saying that a digital computer with a random number generator (and unlimited memory) can execute any known algo- Principles of quantum computation rithm with overhead which is at most polynomial in the size of the problem, compared with the resources required for another computer. The importance of quantum computation is that it violates this thesis! Quantum computers can solve certain mathematical problems faster than is possible using classical resources alone, and moreover, classical computers cannot efficiently simulate quantum computations!
The Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm 4. 1. 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. Fungibility 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Noisy coding theorem 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Examples 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fault-tolerance and scalability References 5 5 5 7 7 12 12 13 14 15 18 19 22 22 23 23 26 28 30 32 ~2 ~4 ~5 ~7 t7 40 41 42 43 44 45 47 48 50 51 51 53 54 This Page Intentionally Left Blank 1. Introduction This chapter summarizes lectures I gave at the Les Houches school on quantum information, from June 30, 2003 through July 10, 2003. Much of the material is based on the book Quantum Computation and Quantum Information  ("QCQI"), co-authored with Michael Nielsen, but aside from a quick introduction to the subject, in this write-up the focus is on new topics and approaches, including quantum circuit analysis methods, a survey of entanglement as a physical resource, a review of information theory, examples of open quantum system dynamics, and a summary of ideas from quantum error correction.
4) 10000) + 10011) + II100) + Ii111). 8) x=0 where x is a two-bit number, conveniently written in decimal form. 9) x--0 when appropriately relabeled. Example 3: 100) + 101) + I10) is entangled. 1111) is entangled, but we'd like to think it is somehow less entangled than 100) + I11); this is indeed the case, as we will see. Example 4: 1000) + l111) is a three-qubit entangled state known as the GHZ state. In fact, most multi-qubit states are entangled. 2. Applications of entanglement We illustrate the usefulness of entangled states with two applications: precision measurement and teleportation.