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The B. r. structure and its extreme degree of puffing can be understood as the result of the unraveling of a thick, folded cable into individual filamentous elements, probably in the form of extended loops (see Fig. 71). Baldwin-effect (Simpson 1953) - the exchange of "non-hereditary" by "hereditary" -+ characters via -+ mutation and -+selection (-+ genetic assimilation). ball metaphase (Barber & Callan 1943) - a form of -+ c-mitosis with characteristically clumped chromosomes. The b. m. is followed by either a complete degeneration of the cell or a state similar to interphase.

In the first division after conjugation, these are distributed to the daughter cells and the normal number of macronuclei (one per cell) is re-established. The macronucleus divides in all subsequent divisions of the individuals prior to the next nuclear reorganization. In this way each pair of conjugants normally gives rise to four, and each autogamous individual, to two caryonides following autogamy. After macronuclear differentiation, a c. usually consists of cells of only one of the two complementary mating types which are generally possible in a -+ syngen.

Each of the three tubules is about 20 nm in diameter and the three are arranged in a line tilted at about 40 ° to the tangent of the centiole. In addition, appendages sometimes extend radially from a group of centriole fibers which end in a "head" (Fig. 5) called a "satellite" (de Harven & Bernhard 1956). C. occur general1y in pairs, one oriented at right angles to the other. Replication of centrioles whereby each centriole gives rise to a daughter centriole begins when the centrioles separate.

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